High Powered eBike Camping: 2021 Toyota RAV4 Prime PHEV with 1500 Watt Inverter and 120V Outlet

BikeMike

Active Member
Toyota is trying to communicate some important information that is presented unclearly in English. Perhaps, the original message is clear in Japanese?


Monthly sales target for Japan 300 units

Production levels are a pathetic joke. How many employees are needed to manufacture ten cars per day for the entire nation of Japan? Are the cars manufactured by the engineering department? Is this some sort of cruel joke? What are they implying? I don't get the point. Why bother? What is wrong?

This reminds me of IBM's initial demand prediction for the PC. This production level suggests to me that some senior executive is ultra conservative and his job is threatened by the release of the RAV4 Prime.

I would not buy a RAV4 Prime until production levels equal demand. The RAV4 Prime stands as my reference model for a PHEV. The product is very sophisticated and expensive.

Without adequate replacement parts, you might be without transportation for months. Any consideration about buying a RAV4 Prime must be made with a very high degree of suspicion.
  • Fitted with a remote-controlled air conditioning system. Air conditioning can be switched on using a smartphone application or a smart key. The car interior can be heated or cooled for up to 20 minutes, using electricity from the lithium-ion battery.
  • Even with the inclusion of a large lithium-ion battery and an emergency spare tire, the new RAV4 provides 490 L (VDA measurement method) of luggage storage space, more than ample for a SUV.
*6Power supply is terminated if the remaining battery power falls below a certain level
*7When HEV power supply mode is used continuously at the maximum output of 1,500 W
*8A subscription-based PHEV recharging service provided by Toyota Motor Corporation
*9As of February 2020.
*10As of February 2020. Number of regular charging points installed in collaboration with Nippon Charge Service LLC.
Websitehttp://www.nippon-juden.co.jp/
*11If a grounded outdoor outlet is available, it can also be used. A locking electrical outlet must be replaced with a high-durability outlet.It

  • Adequate temperature of the lithium-ion battery is maintained using an air conditioning coolant. Reliable battery performance is enhanced by avoiding use under high temperature that accelerates deterioration and by appropriately controlling the battery charge.

  • The air conditioner employs a heat pump system that uses the heat from external air to raise the temperature of engine coolant water to heat the vehicle interior. When the air conditioner is on, it controls power consumption and reduction of the BEV driving range.

  1. Enhancing the convenience, unique to PHEV

  • The new RAV4 comes with a maximum of 1,500 W (AC 100 V) external power supply function as standard equipment that are useful during blackouts and other emergencies, and for outdoor leisure activities. In addition to an accessory electrical socket in the luggage compartment, it is also equipped with a vehicle power connector which can be plugged into the regular charging inlet at the rear (right) of the vehicle for use as an external power socket.

  • It offers two settings, either BEV or HEV external power supply mode, which can be selected according to the intended purpose. BEV mode*6only
  • uses power from the battery, whereas
  • HEV mode starts the engine if the remaining battery power is too low,
  • enabling approximately three days'*7 of power supply on a full gasoline tank.

  • Accessory electrical socket


  • Accessory electrical socket

  • Vehicle power connector

    Vehicle power connector
  • The RAV4 is readily able to provide regular power supplies at home or outside as a standard feature. The supplied power cable (both AC 100 and 200 V) can be connected to an electrical socket for recharging. Away from home, the PHEV recharge support*8 can be used to charge at G-stations located at around 4,200*9 Toyota dealers, and at around 10,800*10 other regular charging points across Japan.

  • Fitted with a remote-controlled air conditioning system.
  • Air conditioning can be switched on using a smartphone application or a smart key. The car interior can be heated or cooled for up to 20 minutes, using electricity from the lithium-ion battery.

  • Even with the inclusion of a large lithium-ion battery and an emergency spare tire, the new RAV4 provides 490 L (VDA measurement method) of luggage storage space, more than ample for a SUV.
*6Power supply is terminated if the remaining battery power falls below a certain level
*7When HEV power supply mode is used continuously at the maximum output of 1,500 W
*8A subscription-based PHEV recharging service provided by Toyota Motor Corporation
*9As of February 2020.
*10As of February 2020. Number of regular charging points installed in collaboration with Nippon Charge Service LLC.
Websitehttp://www.nippon-juden.co.jp/
*11If a grounded outdoor outlet is available, it can also be used. A locking electrical outlet must be replaced with a high-durability outlet.
 
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BikeMike

Active Member
RAV4 Prime is a "Power-split or series-parallel hybrid"


In a power-split hybrid electric drive train there are two motors: a traction electric motor and an internal combustion engine. The power from these two motors can be shared to drive the wheels via a power split device, which is a simple planetary gear set. The ratio can be from 100% for the combustion engine to 100% for the traction electric motor, or anything in between. The combustion engine can act as a generator charging the batteries.

Modern versions such as the Toyota Hybrid Synergy Drive have a second electric motor/generator connected to the planetary gear. In cooperation with the traction motor/generator and the power-split device this provides a continuously variable transmission.

On the open road, the primary power source is the internal combustion engine. When maximum power is required, for example to overtake, the traction electric motor is used to assist. This increases the available power for a short period, giving the effect of having a larger engine than actually installed. In most applications, the combustion engine is switched off when the car is slow or stationary thereby reducing curbside emissions.



Power-split hybrid or series-parallel hybrid are parallel hybrids that incorporate power-split devices, allowing for power paths from the ICE to the wheels that can be either mechanical or electrical. The main principle is to decouple the power supplied by the primary source from the power demanded by the driver.

ICE torque output is minimal at lower RPMs and conventional vehicles increase engine size to meet market requirements for acceptable initial acceleration. The larger engine has more power than needed for cruising. Electric motors produce full torque at standstill and are well-suited to complement ICE torque deficiency at low RPMs. In a power-split hybrid, a smaller, less flexible, and more efficient engine can be used. The conventional Otto cycle (higher power density, more low-RPM torque, lower fuel efficiency) is often modified to an Atkinson cycle or Miller cycle (lower power density, less low-rpm torque, higher fuel efficiency; sometimes called an Atkinson-Miller cycle). The smaller engine, using a more efficient cycle and often operating in the favorable region of the brake specific fuel consumption map, significantly contributes to the higher overall efficiency of the vehicle.



HSD technology produces a full hybrid vehicle which allows the car to run on the electric motor only, as opposed to most other brand hybrids which cannot and are considered mild hybrids. The HSD also combines an electric drive and a planetary gearset which performs similarly to a continuously variable transmission. The Synergy Drive is a drive-by-wiresystem with no direct mechanical connection between the engine and the engine controls: both the gas pedal/acceleratorand the gearshift lever in an HSD car merely send electrical signals to a control computer.

Geared transmissions may be manual, with a clutch, or automatic, with a torque converter, but both allow the engine and the wheels to rotate at different speeds. The driver can adjust the speed and torque delivered by the engine with the accelerator and the transmission mechanically transmits nearly all of the available power to the wheels which rotate at a different rate than the engine, by a factor equal to the gear ratio for the currently selected gear. However, there are a limited number of "gears" or gear ratios that the driver can choose from, typically four to six. This limited gear-ratio set forces the engine crankshaft to rotate at speeds where the ICE is less efficient, i.e., where a liter of fuel produces fewer joules. Optimal engine speed-torque requirements for different vehicle driving and acceleration conditions can be gauged by limiting either tachometer RPM rate or engine noise in comparison with actual speed. When an engine is required to operate efficiently across a broad RPM range, due to its coupling to a geared transmission, manufacturers are limited in their options for improving engine efficiency, reliability, or lifespan, as well as reducing the size or weight of the engine. This is why the engine for an engine-generator is often much smaller, more efficient, more reliable, and longer life than one designed for an automobile or other variable speed application.


Hybrid automobiles replace the separate alternator and starter motor with one or more combined motor/generator(s) (M/Gs) that start the internal combustion engine, provide some or all of the mechanical power to the wheels, and charge a large storage battery. When more than one M/G is present, as in the Hybrid Synergy Drive used in the Toyota Prius and others, one may operate as a generator and feed the other as a motor, providing an electromechanical path for some of the engine power to flow to the wheels. These motor/generators have considerably more powerful electronic devices for their control than the automotive alternator described above.
 
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BikeMike

Active Member
RAV4 Prime has a continuously variable transmission

However, a continuously variable transmission allows the driver (or the automobile computer) to effectively select the optimal gear ratio required for any desired speed or power. The transmission is not limited to a fixed set of gears. This lack of constraint frees the engine to operate at its optimal (most efficient) speed (RPM). The most efficient speed (RPM) for an ICE is often

  • around 1500–2000 RPM for the typical power required to propel an automobile.
  • An HSD vehicle will typically run the engine at its optimal efficiency speed whenever power is needed to
    • charge batteries or
    • accelerate the car,
    • shutting down the engine entirely when less power is required.

Like a CVT, an HSD transmission continuously adjusts the effective gear ratio between the engine and the wheels to maintain the engine speed while the wheels increase their rotational speed during acceleration. This is why Toyota describes HSD-equipped vehicles as having an e-CVT (electronic continuously variable transmission) when required to classify the transmission type for standards specification lists or regulatory purposes.
 

BikeMike

Active Member
How RAV4 Prime Power Flow is Fundamentally Different FROM ICEs
Power flow is why adding a deep cycle 12VB to a conventional car is an inferior solution for eBike Camping. A mild hybrid (e.g., 2021 Toyota Sienna) is inferior for this purpose, also.


In a conventional car design the separately-excited alternator with integral rectifier (DC generator) and starter (DC motor) are considered accessories that are attached to the internal combustion engine (ICE) which normally drives a transmission to power the wheels propelling the vehicle. A battery is used only to start the car's internal combustion engine and run accessories when the engine is not running. The alternator is used to recharge the battery and run the accessories when the engine is running.

The HSD system replaces the geared transmission, alternator, and starter motor with:

  • MG1, an AC motor-generator having a permanent magnet rotor,[7] used as a motor when starting the ICE and as a generator (alternator) when charging the high voltage battery
  • MG2, an AC motor-generator, also having a permanent magnet rotor, used as the primary drive motor and as a generator (alternator), which regeneration power is directed to the high voltage battery. MG2 is generally the more powerful of the two motor-generators
  • Power electronics, including three DC-AC inverters and two DC-DC converters
  • Computerized control system and sensors
  • HVB, a high voltage battery sources electrical energy during acceleration and sinks electrical energy during regeneration braking
Through the power splitter, a series-parallel full hybrid's HSD system thus allows for the following intelligent power flows:[8]

  • Auxiliary power
    • HVB -> DC-DC converter -> 12VDC battery
    • 12VDC battery -> Various standard and automatic energy saving auxiliary functions
  • Engine charge(Recharging and/or heating catalytic converter and/or interior comfort HVAC)
    • ICE -> MG1 -> HVB
  • Battery or EV drive
    • HVB -> MG2 -> wheels
  • Engine & motor drive(Moderate acceleration)
    • ICE -> wheels
    • ICE -> MG1 -> MG2 -> wheels
  • Engine drive with charge(Highway driving)
    • ICE -> wheels
    • ICE -> MG1 -> HVB
  • Engine and motor drive with charge(Heavy power situation such as in steep hills)
    • ICE -> wheels
    • ICE -> MG1 -> HVB
    • ICE -> MG1 -> MG2 -> wheels
  • Full power or gradual slowing(Maximum power situations)
    • ICE -> wheels
    • ICE -> MG1 -> MG2 -> wheels
    • HVB -> MG2 -> wheels
  • B-mode braking
    • Wheels -> MG2 ->HVB
    • Wheels -> MG1 -> ICE (ECU - Electronic Control Unit - uses MG1 to spin ICE which drains battery – allowing more charge from MG2, and also links ICE to wheels causing "engine braking"; ICE RPM increases when charge level of HVB is too much to accept regen electricity from MG2, or increasing effort from driver pushing the brake pedal)
  • Regenerative braking
    • wheels -> MG2 -> HVB
  • Hard braking
    • Front disk/rear drum (rear disk in UK) -> wheels
    • All disk -> wheels (2010 and newer, except 2012-current Prius c, which uses front disk, rear drum).
Power electronics from Prius NHW11 "Classic"
MG1 and MG2Edit
  • MG1 (Primary motor-generator): A motor to start the ICE and a generator to generate electrical power for MG2 and to recharge the high voltage traction battery, and, through a DC-to-DC converter, to recharge the 12 volt auxiliary battery. By regulating the amount of electrical power generated (by varying MG1's mechanical torque and speed), MG1 effectively controls the transaxle's continuously variable transmission.
  • MG2 (Secondary motor-generator): Drives the wheels and regenerates power for the HV battery energy storage while braking the vehicle. MG2 drives the wheels with electrical power generated by the engine-driven MG1 and/or the HVB. During regenerative braking, MG2 acts as a generator, converting kinetic energy into electrical energy, storing this electrical energy in the battery.
 
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BikeMike

Active Member
Why the Electrical System is Only Half of the Hybrid Story

The mechanical gearing design of the system allows the mechanical power from the ICE to be split three ways: extra torque at the wheels (under constant rotation speed), extra rotation speed at the wheels (under constant torque), and power for an electric generator. A computer running appropriate programs controls the systems and directs the power flow from the different engine + motor sources. This power split achieves the benefits of a continuously variable transmission (CVT), except that the torque/speed conversion uses an electric motor rather than a direct mechanical gear train connection. An HSD car cannot operate without the computer, power electronics, battery pack, and motor-generators, though in principle it could operate while missing the internal combustion engine. (See: Plug-in hybrid) In practice, HSD equipped cars can be driven a mile or two without gasoline, as an emergency measure to reach a gas station.

An HSD transaxle contains a planetary gear set that adjusts and blends the amount of torque from the engine and motor(s) as it's needed by the front wheels. It is a sophisticated and complicated combination of gearing, electrical motor-generators, and computer-controlled electronic controls. One of the motor-generators, MG2, is connected to the output shaft, and thus couples torque into or out of the drive shafts; feeding electricity into MG2 adds torque at the wheels. The engine end of the drive shaft has a second differential; one leg of this differential is attached to the internal combustion engine and the other leg is attached to a second motor-generator, MG1. The differential relates the rotation speed of the wheels to the rotation speeds of the engine and MG1, with MG1 used to absorb the difference between wheel and engine speed. The differential is an epicyclic gear set (also called a "power split device"); that and the two motor-generators are all contained in a single transaxle housing that is bolted to the engine. Special couplings and sensors monitor rotation speed of each shaft and the total torque on the drive shafts, for feedback to the control computer. [9]

In Generation 1 and Generation 2 HSDs, MG2 is directly connected to the ring gear, that is, a 1:1 ratio, and which offers no torque multiplication, whereas in Generation 3 HSDs, MG2 is connected to the ring gear through a 2.5:1 planetary gear set,[10] and which, consequently, offers a 2.5:1 torque multiplication, this being a primary benefit of the Generation 3 HSD as it provides for a smaller, yet more powerful MG2. However, a secondary benefit is the MG1 will not be driven into overspeed as frequently, and which would otherwise mandate employing the ICE to mitigate this overspeed; this strategy improves HSD performance as well as saving fuel and wear-and-tear on the ICE.
 

BikeMike

Active Member
Why Hybrids and Li-ion Batteries are Useless Without Sophisticated Software

The HSD system has two principal battery packs, the High Voltage (HV) battery, also known as the traction battery, and a 12 volt lead-acid battery known as the Low Voltage (LV) battery, which functions as an auxiliary battery. The LV battery supplies power to the electronics and accessories when the hybrid system is turned off and the high-voltage battery main relay is off.[11][12]

The traction battery is a sealed nickel-metal hydride (NiMH) battery pack. The battery pack of the first generation Toyota Prius consisted of 228 cells packaged in 38 modules, while the second generation Prius consisted of 28 Panasonic prismatic nickel metal hydride modules, each containing six 1.2 volt cells, connected in series to produce a nominal voltage of 201.6 volts. The discharge power capability of the second gen Prius pack is about 20 kW at 50% state of charge (SoC). The power capability increases with higher temperatures and decreases at lower temperatures. The Prius has a computer that's solely dedicated to keeping the battery at the optimum temperature and optimum charge level.[13]

Like the second generation Prius, the third generation Prius battery pack is made up of the same type of 1.2 volt cells. It has 28 modules of 6 cells for a total nominal voltage of only 201.6 volts. A boost converter is used to produce 500 volt DC supply voltage for the inverters for MG1 and MG2.[11] The car's electronics only allow 40% of total rated capacity of the battery pack (6.5 ampere-hour) to be used in order to prolong the battery life. As a result, the SoC is allowed to vary only between 40% and 80% of the rated full charge.[11] The battery used in the Highlander Hybrid and the Lexus RX 400h was packaged in a different metal battery casing with 240 cells that deliver high voltage of 288 volts.[13]


EV mode button in the 2012 Toyota Camry hybrid.
A button labelled "EV" maintains electric vehicle mode after being powered on and under most low-load conditions at less than 25 mph (40 km/h) if the traction battery has enough charge. This permits all-electric driving with no fuel consumption for up to 1 mi (1.6 km). However, the HSD software switches to EV mode automatically whenever it can.[14][15] Only the Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid has a longer driving all-electric range in blended operation electric-gasoline of 11 mi (18 km) (EPA rating) until the battery is depleted.[16] The Prius PHEV is outfitted with 4.4 kWh lithium-ion batteries co-developed with Panasonic that weighs 80 kg (180 lb) compared with the nickel-metal hydride battery of the third generation Prius, which has a capacity of only 1.3 kWh, and weighs 42 kg (93 lb). The larger battery pack enables all-electric operation at higher speeds and longer distances than the conventional Prius hybrid.[17][18]
 

BikeMike

Active Member
Why Hybrids are so Sensitive to Driving Style

The Toyota Prius has modest acceleration but has extremely high efficiency for a midsized four-door sedan: usually significantly better than 40 mpg (US) (5.9 l/100 km) is typical of brief city jaunts; 55 mpg (4.3 l/100 km) is not uncommon, especially for extended drives at modest speeds (a longer drive allows the engine to warm up fully). This is approximately twice the fuel efficiency of a similarly equipped four-door sedan with a conventional power train. Not all of the extra efficiency of the Prius is due to the HSD system: the Atkinson cycle engine itself was also designed specifically to minimize engine drag via an offset crankshaft to minimize piston drag during the power stroke, and a unique intake system to prevent drag caused by manifold vacuum ("pumping losses") versus the normal Otto cycle in most engines. Furthermore, the Atkinson cycle recovers more energy per cycle than the Otto because of its longer power stroke. The downside of the Atkinson cycle is much reduced torque, particularly at low speed; but the HSD has enormous low-speed torque available from MG2.

The Highlander Hybrid (also sold as the Kluger in some countries) offers better acceleration performance compared to its non-hybrid version. The hybrid version goes from 0–60 mph in 7.2 seconds, trimming almost a second off the conventional version's time. Net hp is 268 hp (200 kW) compared to the conventional 215 hp (160 kW). Top speed for all Highlanders is limited to 112 mph (180 km/h). Typical fuel economy for the Highlander Hybrid rates between 27 and 31 mpg (8.7–7.6 l/100 km). A conventional Highlander is rated by the EPA with 19 city, 25 highway mpg (12.4 and 9.4 l/100 km respectively).


Cutaway display of the HSD Note: Generation 1/Generation 2, chained, ICE-MG1-MG2 Power Split Device HSD is shown
The HSD mileage boost depends on using the gasoline engine as efficiently as possible, which requires:

  • extended drives, especially in winter: Heating the internal cabin for the passengers runs counter to the design of the HSD. The HSD is designed to generate as little waste heat as possible. In a conventional car, this waste heat in winter is usually used to heat the internal cabin. In the Prius, running the heater requires the engine to continue running to generate cabin-usable heat. This effect is most noticeable when turning the climate control (heater) off when the car is stopped with the engine running. Normally the HSD control system will shut the engine off as it is not needed, and will not start it again until the generator reaches a maximum speed.
  • moderate acceleration: Because hybrid cars can throttle back or completely shut off the engine during moderate, but not rapid, acceleration, they are more sensitive than conventional cars to driving style. Hard acceleration forces the engine into a high-power state while moderate acceleration keeps the engine in a lower power, high efficiency state (augmented by battery boost).
  • gradual braking: Regenerative brakes re-use the energy of braking, but cannot absorb energy as fast as conventional brakes. Gradual braking recovers energy for re-use, boosting mileage; hard braking wastes the energy as heat, just as for a conventional car. Use of the "B" (braking) selector on the transmission control is useful on long downhill runs to reduce heat and wear on the conventional brakes, but it does not recover additional energy.[23] Constant use of "B" is discouraged by Toyota as it "may cause decreased fuel economy" compared to driving in "D".[24]
Most HSD systems have batteries that are sized for maximal boost during a single acceleration from zero to the top speed of the vehicle; if there is more demand, the battery can be completely exhausted, so that this extra torque boost is not available. Then the system reverts to just the power available from the engine. This results in a large decline in performance under certain conditions: an early-model Prius can achieve over 90 mph (140 km/h) on a 6 degree upward slope, but after about 2,000 feet (610 m) of altitude climb the battery is exhausted and the car can achieve only 55–60 mph on the same slope.[citation needed] (until the battery is recharged by driving under less demanding circumstances)
 
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BikeMike

Active Member
Why Running the Air Conditioner Has a Huge Impact on Battery Charge


Although not part of the HSD as such, all HSD vehicles from the 2004 Prius onwards have been fitted with an electric air-conditioning compressor, instead of the conventional engine-driven type. This removes the need to continuously run the engine when cabin cooling is required. Two positive temperature coefficient heaters are fitted in the heater core to supplement the heat provided by the engine.[25]
 

BikeMike

Active Member
Enter the Realm of Highly Compromised Decisons and Deeply Ambivalent Feelings
You might have a technical background that helps you assimilate the vast amount of evidence presented to this point. You might find the evidence totally meaningless. Either way, you will grapple with which car is best suited to eBike camping. I fell very ambivanent about the most appropriate choice: 2021 Toyota Sienna. I cringe with this compromise. Focusing my attention on how to improve weaknesses is the most productive use of time.

Why 2021 Toyota Sienna?

  1. A few bikes can fit inside the vehicle.
  2. The Sienna is a "mild hybrid" type,
    1. Has some, but not much, HV battery capacity.​
    2. It has an electric motor-generator, rather than an alternator-gas engine, architecture.​
  3. The 110VAC outlet can recharge an eBike battery in cold temperatures, inside the vehicle.​
  4. Has more space than an SUV.​
  5. Toyota cars can be serviced in remote locations.
    1. I plan to travel along the Great Divide trail, from Canada to Mexico.​
  6. ?
How to compensate for weaknesses?
  1. How to prevent engine from turning on automatically when heating the interior from 110V outlet on cold nights?
  2. How to compensate for low HV battery capacity?
  3. How to compensate for lack of plug-in recharging?
  4. ?
 

ROCebike

Member
Enter the Realm of Highly Compromised Decisons and Deeply Ambivalent Feelings
You might have a technical background that helps you assimilate the vast amount of evidence presented to this point. You might find the evidence totally meaningless. Either way, you will grapple with which car is best suited to eBike camping. I fell very ambivanent about the most appropriate choice: 2021 Toyota Sienna. I cringe with this compromise. Focusing my attention on how to improve weaknesses is the most productive use of time.

Why 2021 Toyota Sienna?

  1. A few bikes can fit inside the vehicle.
  2. The Sienna is a "mild hybrid" type,​
    1. Has some, but not much, HV battery capacity.​
    2. It has an electric motor-generator, rather than an alternator-gas engine, architecture.​

  3. The 110VAC outlet can recharge an eBike battery in cold temperatures, inside the vehicle.​
  4. Has more space than an SUV.​
  5. Toyota cars can be serviced in remote locations.​
    1. I plan to travel along the Great Divide trail, from Canada to Mexico.​

  6. ?
How to compensate for weaknesses?
  1. How to prevent engine from turning on automatically when heating the interior from 110V outlet on cold nights?
  2. How to compensate for low HV battery capacity?
  3. How to compensate for lack of plug-in recharging?
  4. ?
I came across your thread and am totally puzzled by this analysis. Why not save all this time and anticipated money (ev prices) and buy a standard vehicle and $900 Yamaha generator for ebike camping?
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