High Powered eBike Camping: 2021 Toyota Sienna Hybrid with 1500 Watt Inverter and 110V Outlets

BikeMike

Active Member
The purpose of the 2021 Toyota Sienna electrical system is to improve energy efficiency. How much benefit does the electrical system provide for recreational purposes?

Some clarifications are needed to answer the following questions.

Note: Engine refers to gas-engine. Motor refers to electric motor(s) that power wheels or a generator

  • How to charge the battery when the van is stationary?
    • Does the electrical system have a second generator for charging?
    • Does the inverter function when gas engine is not running?
    • Can a solar panel be connected to the electrical system?
  • What is battery capacity and duration utilizing gas tank?
    • Does the gas engine automatically toggle on/off when the battery is low and inverter power is drawn?
    • How long can 110V power be drawn when the gas engine is off?
  • Can the refrigerator/freezer cool without gas engine power?
  • What is the structure of the electrical system?
    • How well-suited is the structure for recreational purposes?
  • Is EV-only mode range sufficient for city driving, without plugin socket?
Use the following Venn diagram to match your ABC needs with the van capabilities

A: Recreational electric power needs
B: Sleeping needs
C: Cargo Space for ancillary needs like food, water, clothing, tools, entertainment, etc...

  • U: Unknown (starting point)
  • S: Symmetry equal balance or 1:1:1 ratio
  • AB: Space compromised
  • SB: Comfort-orientated
  • BC: Underpowered
  • SC: Oversized
  • :( AC: Sleep compromised (when heat necessary)
    • I will use a portable battery to power an electric blanket, rather than rely on hybrid power.
  • SA: Overpowered

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I’m looking for a 4x4 or AWD vehicle to access long distance bike routes, e.g., from Canada to Mexico. The Great Divide trail is nearby.


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My specifications in Priority order, for a 4x4, follow:

  1. Sleep
    :( Do not sleep in the vehicle while using devices such as an electric heater.
  2. Ventilation
    1. heated and/or ventilated seats that accommodate sleeping with a reclining feature
    2. diesel or electric air heater connected to car ventilation ducts
    3. Connect new fan(s) to existing car ducts for fresh air
    4. driven by hybrid battery
  3. Insulate
    1. windows
    2. partition between cargo and cabin areas
    3. ceiling
    4. floor
  4. Heat
    1. Air
      1. diesel or electric air heater
    2. Water
      1. Electric
    3. Food
      1. Electric induction
    4. Floor
      1. Electric radiant heat to prevent water from freezing
  5. Power, Generic
    • Capacity and Duration


    • Limitations

      :( If the temperature inside the vehicle is high, such as after the vehicle has been parked in the sun,
      • use the air conditioning system to sufficiently ventilate or cool the interior, and then press the AC120V switch again.

    • :( If the vehicle has been stopped in a cold area, to protect the hybrid battery (traction battery), the power outlets may not be able to be used.
      • In this case, drive the vehicle for a while to warm up the hybrid battery (traction battery), and then press the AC120V switch again.
      • :( If the charge is low, shift the shift lever to P, allow the engine to run to charge the hybrid battery (traction battery), and then press the AC120V switch again.
    • 110V input charge, J1772 EV Jack or fast charge option
    • Solar power connection to hybrid batte
    • Inverter to supply 110V
    • Battery Chemistry
      1. Ability to function at extreme temperatures
  6. Water supply
    1. Cooking
    2. Shower
    3. Toilet
  7. Frame
    1. Light fixtures
    2. Food storage
    3. Clothes storage
  8. Roof or truck bed
    1. Solar panels
    2. Ventilation fans or moonroof
  9. Appliances
    1. Lighting
    2. Air compressor to clean and dry chain.
  10. Cooling
    1. Electric Refrigeration
    2. Battery and Generator
    3. A/C system operation with engine off
  11. Vehicle
    1. Maintenance in remote locations
    2. Fuel availability (B20 diesel)
    3. Carbon Monoxide detection
    4. Table space
    5. Security System
      1. High energy drain; operates continuously

More specific questions are asked in Post #3:

  • So, how much gas is needed for a 3.5 hour eBike charge?
  • Will the engine be harmed by long periods of idling?
    • If so, how to mitigate extent of damage, besides the automatic control features?
  • How much multitasking can occur simultaneously on a 1500W system, assuming a 3W eBike charger?
  • How dependent is the outcome on tank size and gas station proximity?
  • Should the car be driven during eBike charging? If so, how far?
  • Am i dreaming, or is the Ford F150 PowerBoost more appropriate?
    • The equivalent F150 will probably cost $60K to $70K, versus $40K to $50 for a Sienna.
 
Last edited:

BikeMike

Active Member
The 2021 Sienna is a candidate because some trim packages seem to offer some decent compromise.

The best match might be Platinum, but price information is currently unavailable.

  1. Ottoman feature
    1. XLE, XSE - optional
    2. Platinum, Limited - included
  2. A 1,500-watt inverter is also available for XLE grade and above.
    • Options are conveniently grouped in the
    • LE Plus,
    • XLE Plus and
    • XSE Plus packages.
  3. AWD, and the system is available on all model grades for an exceptionally attractive price.
  4. Toyota Premium Audio with Dynamic Navigation and JBL® Premium Audio
    • (standard on Limited and Platinum,
    • optional for XLE and XSE):
    • adds 12 speakers including subwoofer and
    • 1,200-watt amplification, plus
    • -Fi® digital restoration technology to Toyota Premium Audio with Dynamic Navigation.
  5. Refrigerator standard on Platinum and Limited

  • The 2021 Toyota Sienna is also ready for life’s outdoor adventures with its all-wheel drive option – and is well-positioned for
    • Yakima® accessories, such as a rooftop carrier, cross bars, bike rack and more.
    • The Sienna will also offer an available tow hitch and
    • factory optional 1,500-watt inverter with 120V AC outlet to power camping equipment.
  • Sienna's all-new interior features available super long-slide captain's chairs with built-in ottomans 65 that slide back for enhanced comfort or slide up to create more space for stuff.
  • In gravel, rain or snow, Sienna's available Electronic On-Demand AWD system helps you take on the conditions life throws your way.
  • FridgeBox
  • Standard Hybrid Powertrain with Class-Leading Manufacturer-Estimated 33 Combined MPG
  • The Sienna LE and some XLE models come equipped in eight-seat configurations
    • with two captain chairs,
    • a long slide second row seat and
    • a stowable middle seat.
  • Some models,
    • XLE as well as the XSE,
    • Limited and Platinum
    • are seven-seat models featuring the Super Long Slide second-row captain’s chairs
    • with the Limited and Platinum FWD models equipped with ottomans.
  • The 2021 Sienna is equipped with 10 airbags: driver and front passenger airbags; driver’s knee airbag; passenger seat cushion airbag; front seat side airbags; rear outboard seat side airbags, plus curtain side airbags for all three rows.
  • Toyota’s Star Safety System includes Enhanced Vehicle Stability Control (VSC) with Traction Control (TRAC), Electronic Brake-force Distribution (EBD), Brake Assist (BA), Anti-lock Braking System (ABS), and Smart Stop Technology (SST).
  • Of course, with all the onboard connectivity Sienna offers (seven USB ports,
    • available WiFi,
    • optional JBL 1,200-watt amp/12-speaker Premium Audio and
    • 1080p HD rear entertainment system), conversation is just one of the things made better by the quieter cabin.
  • The available Bird’s Eye View Camera with Perimeter Scan is the next-best thing to launching a camera drone to look around the vehicle, but a lot easier to use.
    • This tech provides a live, 360-degree view to help the driver to see potential obstacles. This is especially critical for seeing children or small animals that might be close to the vehicle. And, Curb View can help prevent scuffing those beautiful 20-inch wheels.
  • The Sienna driver will feel ultra-smooth acceleration and hear very little noise. What is noticeable is the kick in low-speed torque from two electric motors working in concert with the high-efficiency 2.5-liter DOHC four-cylinder engine.
  • Critically, the Sienna has no plug, and there is
    • no need to ever recharge the hybrid battery pack, and certainly no need to spend a couple of thousand dollars installing a battery charger in a garage. The Toyota Hybrid System II charges the hybrid battery automatically as the vehicle drives.
  • The Sienna, though, does offer some performance-control surprises. Selectable EV, NORMAL, ECO and SPORT driving modes let the driver tailor the van’s driving personality. NORMAL mode is ideal for everyday driving; SPORT mode unlocks boost from the hybrid system for improved acceleration response; ECO mode extracts maximum mileage from the fuel and battery,
    • and EV mode allows electric-only driving at low speeds for short distances.
  • The driver can use a sequential shifting feature to “downshift,”
    • which increases the regenerative braking in steps.
    • It’s ideal for driving in hilly areas, for example, acting as a lower gear while increasing recovered energy sent to the HV battery. As a bonus, the Sienna’s hybrid system enhances ride smoothness by finely controlling the drive torque to suppress pitch and dive under acceleration and deceleration.
  • The Sienna benefits from Toyota’s 20+ years of global hybrid leadership and well documented quality, dependability and reliability. Plus, the powertrain warranty covers
    • all hybrid-related components, including the HV battery, for
    • 10 years/150,000 miles, whichever comes first.
  • Using navigation system operation (when equipped), Predictive Efficient Drive (PED)
    • analyzes driving habits and memorized road and traffic conditions to optimize hybrid battery charging.
    • When the driver activates PED, the system learns repeating routes and can predict when and where the vehicle is likely to slow down or stop.
    • Then, through optimum accelerator pedal release timing guidance, the feature can reduce energy consumption, especially when driving through hilly areas or in traffic congestion. All the owner has to do is drive.
    • Sienna will optimize fuel economy on its own.
  • Sienna has long offered optional all-wheel drive, and the 2021 model is no exception. The 2021 Sienna is the only vehicle in its segment that combines a hybrid powertrain with
    • AWD, and the system is available on all model grades for an exceptionally attractive price.
  • Sienna uses a new kind of AWD called Electronic on-demand AWD. Instead of a heavy AWD transfer case and space-robbing driveshaft to the rear wheels, this
    • AWD system uses a separate independent electric motor to power the rear wheels the instant additional traction is needed and at all vehicle speeds.

  • Toyota Premium Audio with Dynamic Navigation and JBL® Premium Audio
    • (standard on Limited and Platinum,
    • optional for XLE and XSE):
    • adds 12 speakers including subwoofer and
    • 1,200-watt amplification, plus
    • -Fi® digital restoration technology to Toyota Premium Audio with Dynamic Navigation.
In the Toyota tradition, the 2021 Toyota Sienna comes
  • well equipped in the LE grade and
  • adds more amenities and tech in the higher grades.
  • Options are conveniently grouped in the
    • LE Plus,
    • XLE Plus and
    • XSE Plus packages.

  • The Limited and Platinum grades have no packages but do offer two factory options:
    • Digital Rearview Mirror and 1080p HD Entertainment Center with 11.6-in. display, HDMI input, remote control and two wireless headphones (also optional on XLE and XSE).
    • A 1,500-watt inverter is also available for XLE grade and above.

IMG_0959.PNG


  • Toyota’s 36-month/36,000 mile basic new-vehicle warranty applies to all components other than normal wear and maintenance items.
  • Additional 60-month warranties cover the powertrain for 60,000 miles and against perforation from corrosion for 60 months with no mileage limitation.
  • Hybrid-related components that require repairs needed to correct defects in materials or workmanship are covered for 8 years/100,000 miles, whichever comes first from original date of first use when sold as new.
  • The HV battery is covered for 10 years/150,000 miles, whichever comes first, and is transferrable across ownership.
 
Last edited:

BikeMike

Active Member
The marketing material opens up as many questions as it answers.

The purpose of the electrical system is to improve energy efficiency. How much benefit does the electrical system provide for recreation?
  • How to charge the battery when the van is stationary?
    • Does the electrical system have a second generator for charging?
    • Does the inverter function when gas engine is not running?
    • Can a solar panel be connected to the electrical system?
  • What is battery capacity and duration utilizing gas tank?
    • Does the gas engine automatically toggle on/off when the battery is low and inverter power is drawn?
    • How long can 110V power be drawn when the gas engine is off?
  • Can the refrigerator/freezer cool without gas engine power?
  • What is the structure of the electrical system?
    • How well-suited is the structure for recreational purposes?
  • Is EV-only mode range sufficient for city driving, without plugin socket?
Use the following Venn diagram to match your ABC needs with the van capabilities

A: Recreational electric power needs
B: Sleeping needs
C: Cargo Space for ancillary needs like food, water, clothing, tools, entertainment, etc...
  • U: Unknown (starting point)
  • S: Symmetry equal balance or 1:1:1 ratio
  • AB: Space compromised
  • SB: Comfort-orientated
  • BC: Underpowered
  • SC: Oversized
  • AC: Undersized
  • SA: Overpowered
Venn2.png

The 2020 Highlander hybrid probably serves as a good approximation about design expectations.

  • When taking a nap in the vehicle Always turn the hybrid system off.
  • Otherwise, if you accidentally move the shift lever or depress the accelerator pedal, this could cause an accident or fire due to hybrid system overheating.​
  • Additionally, if the vehicle is parked in a poorly ventilated area, exhaust gases may collect and enter the vehicle, leading to death or a serious health hazard.​

  • The vehicle is equipped with a feature that automatically shuts off the hybrid system when the shift lever is in P with the hybrid system operating for an extended period.
  • If the vehicle is in a poorly venti- lated area or a closed area, such as a garage, stop the hybrid system.
    ●Do not leave the vehicle with the hybrid system operating for a long time. If such a situation cannot be avoided, park the vehicle in an open space and ensure that exhaust fumes do not enter the vehicle interior.
    ●Do not leave the hybrid system operating in an area with snow build-up, or where it is snowing.
    • If snowbanks build up around the vehicle while the hybrid sys- tem is operating, exhaust gases may collect and enter the vehi- cle.

  • Situations in which EV drive mode cannot be turned on
    It may not be possible to turn EV drive mode on in the following situa- tions. If it cannot be turned on, a buzzer will sound and a message will be shown on the multi-informa- tion display.
    ●The temperature of the hybrid sys- tem is high.
    The vehicle has been left in the sun, driven on a hill, driven at high speeds, etc.​
    ●The temperature of the hybrid sys- tem is low.
    The vehicle has been left in tem- peratures lower than about 32°F (0 °C) for a long period of time, etc.
    ●The gasoline engine is warming up.​
    ●The hybrid battery (traction bat- tery) is low.
    The remaining battery level indi- cated in the energy monitor dis- play is low. (P.117)​
    ●Vehicle speed is high.​
    ●The accelerator pedal is depressed firmly or the vehicle is on a hill, etc.​
    ●The windshield defogger is in use.​
  • Possible driving distance when driving in EV drive mode
    EV drive mode’s possible driving distance ranges from a few hundred meters to approximately 0.6 mile (1 km).
    • However, depending on vehicle conditions, there are situations when EV drive mode cannot be used.
  • 378 5-5. Using the other interior features
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    NOTICE
    ■ To prevent 12-volt battery dis- charge
    Do not use the power outlet lon- ger than necessary when the hybrid system is not running.
    1
    ■ When turning the power outlets on
    Checkthattheparkingbrake is engaged, securely depress the brake pedal and press the power switch.
    CheckthattheREADYindi- cator is illuminated, and press the AC120V switch.
    The power outlets can be used when the indicator on the AC120V switch is illuminated.

    The power outlets are turned off/on each time the AC120V switch is pressed.
    ■ When connecting a device
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    Power outlets (120 VAC) (if equipped)
    2
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    Please use as a power supply for electronic devices that use less than 120 VAC (power con- sumption of 1500 W).
    ■ Using the power outlets  On the console box Open the lid.
     In the luggage compartment Open the lid.
    Open the lid, and fully and securely insert the plug of the device into the power outlet.
     Rear of console box
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    HIGHLANDER HV_U
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    1
     Luggage compartment
    ■ When turning the power outlets off
    Turntheconnecteddevices off.
    Press the AC120V switch to turn the power outlets off.
    Disconnecteachplugfrom the power outlets.
    Close the lid of each power outlet.
    The power outlet can be used when
    The READY indicator is illuminated.

    ■ Rules/regulations regarding idling stop

  • The engine will start automatically to charge the hybrid battery (traction battery) if its charge becomes low.
    • In some municipalities, if the engine starts while the vehicle is parked or stopped, it may violate local rules or regulations regarding idling stop and you may be penalized.
    • Make sure to check the local rules and regula- tions before using the power outlets while the vehicle is parked or stopped.
      ■ Power outlets
      ●When connecting a device, make sure that the total power con- sumption of all devices connected to the 120 VAC power outlets is
      2
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      3
      4
      5-5. Using the other interior features 379
      less than 1500 W. If a device is connected and the power con- sumption is exceeded, a protec- tion circuit will cut the power supply and the power outlets will not be able to be used.
      ●Depending on the device to be used, the current flow may be high and the initial peak wattage may exceed 1500 W.
      In this case, the protection circuit may operate, and the power out- lets may not be able to be used.
      Depending on the connected device, it may cause interference with TV and radio broadcasts.
      ●The voltage of the power outlets cannot be measured with a com- mercially available electrical tes- ter. If it is necessary to check the voltage, have the vehicle inspected by your Toyota dealer.
      While a power outlet is being used, a cooling fan sound may be heard from near a rear seat. This does not indicate a malfunction.
      ■ Devices which may not operate correctly
      The following 120 VAC devices may not operate properly even if their power consumption is less than 1500 W:
      Devices with high initial peak watt- age
      Measuring devices that process precise data
      Devices that require an extremely stable power supply
      Devices that require a constant power supply from the power out- let, such as a device with a timer.
      ■ When the 120 VAC power out- lets cannot be used
      If the AC120V switch is pressed but the switch indicator does not illumi- nate, the protection circuit may have operated.
      In this case, perform the appropriate procedures as follows.
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      5
      page379image2403352480

      HIGHLANDER HV_U
      Interior features
      380 5-5. Using the other interior features
      ●Disconnect the plug of each device from the power outlets, check that the total power con- sumption of all devices to be con- nected to the power outlets is less than 1500 W, reconnect the devices and then press the AC120V switch again.
      ●Disconnect the plug of each device from the power outlets, check that the devices are not malfunctioning, reconnect the devices and then press the AC120V switch again.
      ●Check the charge of the hybrid battery (traction battery) (P.117).
      • If the charge is low, shift the shift lever to P, allow the engine to run to charge the hybrid battery (traction battery), and then press the AC120V switch again.
        :( If the temperature inside the vehicle is high, such as after the vehicle has been parked in the sun,
        • use the air conditioning system to sufficiently ventilate or cool the interior, and then press the AC120V switch again.

      • :( If the vehicle has been stopped in a cold area, to protect the hybrid battery (traction battery), the power outlets may not be able to be used.
        • In this case, drive the vehicle for a while to warm up the hybrid battery (traction battery), and then press the AC120V switch again.
          If the power outlets cannot be used even after performing the appropri- ate procedures above, have the vehicle inspected by your Toyota dealer.
          page380image2400712656
    • Do not use devices such as the following when driving:
      • Devices which cannot be prop- erly secured within the vehicle.
      • Devices which may distract the driver and be a hindrance to safe driving, such as a TV, DVD player, etc.
      • Unsecured devices which gen- erate heat, such as a toaster, microwave, electric heater, elec- tric kettle, coffee maker, etc., as they may cause burns or a fire in the case of sudden braking or an accident.
      • Devices which may fall under the pedals and prevent the brake pedal from being depressed.
        :( Do not use devices which produce steam while the windows are closed.
        • Doing so may cause the windows to fog up, reducing visibility and making it difficult to drive safely.
        • Also, the steam may damage or negatively affect other devices.
  • ● Do not connect a malfunctioning device to a power outlet, as doing so may cause the power outlets to become inoperable.
    ●Do not disconnect the plug of a device while your hands are wet or insert a pin or other object into the power outlet.
  • Also, if a liquid or snow is on the power outlet, dry the outlet before using it.
    ●Do not attempt to modify, disas- semble or repair a power outlet.
  • Also, do not replace the 120 VAC inverter with a commer- cially available one. For infor- mation on repairs, contact your Toyota dealer.
    WARNING
    ■ For safe use
    Observe the following precau- tions.
    Failure to do so may lead to an accident, resulting in death or serious injury.
    HIGHLANDER HV_U
    5-5. Using the other interior features 381
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    WARNING
    ●Do not let children touch the power outlets.
    ●Keep the power outlets free of dust and foreign matter.
    ●If the plug of a device fits loosely in a power outlet, even though it is fully inserted, replace the power outlet. For information on replacement, contact your Toyota dealer.
    Using the power outlets while parked or stopped
    Observe the following precau- tions.
    Failure to do so may lead to an accident, possibly resulting in death or serious injury.
    Make sure to engage the park- ing brake and shift the shift lever to P.
    ●Do not leave the vehicle unat- tended while the READY indica- tor is illuminated and a device is connected to a power outlet.
    ●Make sure that the hood is closed.
    • As the engine will start automatically depending on the condition of the vehicle,
    • make sure that nothing is left near or contacting the exhaust pipes.
    • Also, do not put your head or hands anywhere inside the engine compartment, as the cooling fan may operate sud- denly.
    • Keep hands and clothing (especially a tie, scarf, etc.) away from the fan as they may get caught in a fan.
    Do not use the power outlets in an area with poor ventilation or an enclosed area,
    • such as a garage without a ventilation or exhaust system,
    • or in an area where the vehicle may become surrounded by snow, as the exhaust gasses may accumu- late, causing a lack of oxygen.
      ●Do not use the power outlets if the vehicle has a vehicle cover installed.

    • :( Do not sleep in the vehicle while using devices such as an elec- tric heater.

    • ■ Devices to be connected
      Make sure to read any instruction manual which came with a device and observe any warnings on the device. Do not connect a device to a power outlet if the device is malfunctioning or its plug is dam- aged.
      Do not use power outlets for med- ical devices,
      • as the output of the power outlet may be cut, depend- ing on the condition of the vehicle.
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        NOTICE
        Observe the following precau- tions.
        Failure to do so may lead to the power outlets not operating cor- rectly or damage to the vehicle or a connected device.
        ■ To avoid short circuit or mal- function
        Do not set a device which gen- erates heat near the interior components or on a seat. Heat may cause these parts to melt or burn.
 
Last edited:

BikeMike

Active Member
Daily temperature fluctuation from 40F to 70F is probably optimal for 120 ACV hybrid battery use. Every evaluation must be made in the context of temperature range(s). With a temperature range, we can begin to answer questions about battery dependence upon gas engine power. We clearly need State of Charge (SOC) information from the van control panel.

Charging an eBike battery can usually be scheduled around a reliable temperature range. I am unconcerned about eBike charging. I am more concerned about hybrid battery use outside of daylight hours, or conditions that will induce gas engine use. Recreational hybrid battery use is most restricted at higher altitudes during winter. My default temperature range context is the worst case scenario, from 20F to 50F. I often ride my mechanical bikes on sunny days in 20F temperatures in Denver. Wet surfaces is my biggest hinderance.

This analysis assumes the eBike can be stored inside the van for charging. Some eBikes have fixed batteries that cannot be easily removed. The bike should be stored in the van overnight to protect against low temperatures. I am interested in the implications for the Specialized Creo EVO, to disclose my bias. I am assuming the bike as dedicated storage inside the van.

The first assumption is the gas engine will always be running in cold temperatures, regardless of battery charge. The hybrid battery requires a temperature above 32F. The eBike battery also requires warm temperatures to charge quickly and efficiently.

Please inform us, if you can answer any of the following questions:
  • So, how much gas is needed for a 3.5 hour eBike charge?
    • Is premium fuel needed to achieve peak performance?
  • What is the structure of the Sienna hybrid system? How does it function?
    • Does it use a generator to supply power?
    • What are the battery details?
    • What is important to know about the inverter?
    • What is the ideal configuration for a recreational purpose, generator directly connected to inverter and bypassing the hybrid battery?
  • Will the engine be harmed by long periods of idling?
    • If so, how to mitigate extent of damage, besides the automatic control features?
  • How much multitasking can occur simultaneously on a 1500W system, assuming a 3W eBike charger?
  • How dependent is the outcome on tank size and gas station proximity?
  • Should the car be driven during eBike charging? If so, how far?
  • Am i dreaming, or is the Ford F150 PowerBoost more appropriate?
    • The equivalent F150 will probably cost $60K to $70K, versus $40K to $50 for a Sienna.
    • The F150 PowerBoost system is designed to function like a construction work site generator, up to 7kW.


 
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BikeMike

Active Member


https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nickel–metal_hydride_battery#Electric_vehicles

Electric vehiclesEdit
Main articles: Electric vehicle, Battery electric vehicle, Who Killed the Electric Car?, Electric car, and Patent encumbrance of large automotive NiMH batteries
GM Ovonic NiMH Battery Module
NiMH batteries were frequently used in prior-generation electric and hybrid-electric vehicles; as of 2020 have been superseded almost entirely with lithium batteries in all-electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles, but they remain in use in some hybrid vehicles (2020 Toyota Highlander, for example).[38] Prior all-electric plug-in vehicles included the General Motors EV1, first-generation Toyota RAV4 EV, Honda EV Plus, Ford Ranger EVand Vectrix scooter. Every first generation hybrid vehicle used NIMH batteries, most notably the Toyota Prius and Honda Insight, as well as later models including the Ford Escape Hybrid, Chevrolet Malibu Hybrid and Honda Civic Hybrid also use them.


Battery type: Sealed Nickel Metal Hydride (Ni-MH)


https://batteryuniversity.com/learn/article/nickel_based_batteries


Advantages
30–40 percent higher capacity than a standard NiCd

Less prone to memory than NiCd, can be rejuvenated

Simple storage and transportation; not subject to regulatory control

Environmentally friendly; contains only mild toxins

Nickel content makes recycling profitable
Wide temperature range
Limitations
Limited service life; deep discharge reduces service life

Requires complex charge algorithm. Sensitive to overcharge

Does not absorb overcharge well; trickle charge must be kept low

Generates heat during fast charge and high-load discharge

High self-discharge
Coulombic efficiency only about 65% (99% with Li-ion)
Table 3: Advantages and limitations of NiMH batteries.
 

BikeMike

Active Member


 

BikeMike

Active Member
After reading this article, i am under the impression that i would be using the system in the opposite way that it was intended to function. The F150 design is the more appropriate design for recreational purposes.


Beginning with the original Prius, Toyota pioneered the full hybrid system that uses two separate powerplants – a battery-powered electric motor and petrol-driven combustion engine – which can work together to drive the vehicle or can each be used in isolation. It is the most popular hybrid system in the world, and has sold more than 15 million units since the Prius was launched in Japan in August 1997.

Hybrid Synergy Drive

The second kind of hybrid is known as parallel. It uses a normal combustion engine as the main source of power, with an electric motor fitted between the engine and gearbox to provide assistance. This arrangement tends to be more restricted in its function than a full hybrid, and fitting an electric motor into a very small space also limits its power and EV (electric vehicle) range.

Lastly, the third hybrid variation is the series type. In this type of vehicle the electric motor provides all the drive. The normal combustion engine isn’t connected to the transmission, and instead works as a generator to power the electric motor. The main hurdle for a series hybrid is maintaining its efficiency once the battery power has been used up. For this reason, series hybrids are rare.

Toyota hybrid – how does the system work?
Toyota’s hybrid drive system consists of six primary components: petrol engine, electric motor, electric generator, power control unit, and a power split device that uses a special type of gearbox to smoothly distribute power from the engine, motor and generator.

It is a clever, fuel-saving technology that can seamlessly and automatically switch between electric power and conventional engine power. Capable of adapting to different driving conditions, our hybrid system intelligently controls the power coming from both sources and tells the car how to combine them for the greatest efficiency and performance.

Hybrid Synergy Drive

The system delivers true synergy between the two power sources. When the engine is running, it charges the battery via the generator; when driving conditions allow it, such as in slow-moving traffic, the generator can cut out the petrol engine and let the electric motor take over for zero-emissions travelling. The sophisticated engine management system can sense when the car is stopped and will switch off the engine to conserve power and cut emissions, automatically starting up again when needed.


 
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BikeMike

Active Member
A good comparison of different hybrid designs and implementations. I am getting the impression that a Plugin hybrid is more appropriate, because they have large batteries, e.g., 16 kW. The power going to the inverter should source from the traction battery, rather than the 12V starter battery.

 
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BikeMike

Active Member
The Mitsubishi Outlander seems like the most appropriate technology for recreational purposes. My understanding is the vehicle can be heated overnight without the motor turning on automatically.


Ultimate Outdoor Vehicle

Standard in the Outlander PHEV GT trim are two AC power outlets located in the rear seat and cargo area. The plugs are standard North American 120V plugs and do not require an adapter to use.

The plugs draw directly from the drive battery and provide 1,500 watts of electric power,

enough to power nearly any portable household appliance, for camping (e.g., toaster, spotlight, electric grill, coffee maker) or tailgating (e.g., television, blender, game console, mini-fridge, speakers) or any other activity.

Three Drive System Modes

Thanks to its unique drivetrain, which combines a front electric motor, rear electric motor, and front-mounted gasoline-powered 2.0-liter engine with integrated generator, the 2019 Mitsubishi Outlander PHEV is able to automatically select one of three unique drivetrain modes for optimal performance and efficiency:

EV Drive Mode (Twin Motor S-AWC EV)

In EV Drive Mode, the vehicle is driven by the two electric motors, with energy being supplied exclusively by the lithium-ion battery pack. With the EV mode button, the driver can select this driving mode when they desire 100% electric-powered, zero-emission driving.

Series Hybrid Mode (Twin Motor S-AWC EV with Internal Combustion Generator)

When the energy level remaining in the lithium-ion battery pack is low or when the need arises for sudden additional acceleration, the two electric motors are powered by the battery pack andthe gasoline-powered generator.

In this configuration, the gasoline-powered generator helps:
1) Charge the lithium-ion drive battery pack
2) Provide power to the twin electric motors


Parallel Hybrid Mode (Gasoline-Powered Engine Supported by Twin Motor S-AWC)

In this drive mode, the Outlander PHEV uses its full complement of available resources:

1) The 2.0-liter gasoline engine drives the front wheels; the front axle features a built-in clutch that switches the system to Parallel Drive Mode mainly for engine-powered travel at high speeds/steady-state cruise.

2) The two electric motors operate seamlessly when additional power is required, such as driving uphill.

3) The gasoline-powered engine/generator – while operating the vehicle at sufficient speed – will feed any excess energy (electricity) back into the lithium-ion battery pack.

The Parallel Hybrid mode is most commonly engaged when the Outlander PHEV is being driven in a long-haul/high-speed steady-state cruise manner, such as on the open road or interstate, where this drivetrain configuration is most efficient.

Easy Charging with Standard DC Fast-Charging Capability

Charging the Outlander PHEV is simple, with three different methods to choose from depending on location and/or needs. The vehicle’s drive battery can be charged with a standard 120V (full charge in eight hours) power outlet at home with the supplied charging cable, or with a public or residential 240V (full charge in less than four hours) charging station. Outlander PHEV also comes standard with DC Fast-Charging capability and is the only Plug-in Hybrid SUV in the market offering this feature. Using this system at commercial charging facilities, the vehicle will charge up to 80 percent capacity in as little as 25 minutes. Charging status is conveniently displayed on the instrument panel.
 
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BikeMike

Active Member

The question is where the inverter draws power from, the 16 kWh traction battery or the starter battery. I don't want the gas engine to be automatically started when the traction battery level is low.

To be useful for recreational purposes, at least two 1500W inverters should be installed, if possible.

My essential goal is to connect a heater to the inverter, that draws power from a 10kWh, or larger traction battery. A direct connection to a permanently installed heater would be ideal . The most likely outcome is an indirect connection to a portable heater from the 120ACV outlet.

2021 Chrysler Pacifica Hybrid Pinnacle

20-inch alloy wheels
115-volt outlet ? 150W or 1500W ?
Self-parking/360-degree camera system
Harman Kardon audio system upgrade
Rear-seat entertainment system

Can the Chrysler Pacifica come with all-wheel drive?
If we were still in 2019, the answer would have been no. The only all-wheel-drive minivan available then was the Toyota Sienna. The Pacifica started offering that option during the 2020 model year, and this 2021 version continues to do so. However, it’s not possible to have all-wheel drive with the plug-in hybrid powertrain.

The hybrid version of Touring trim adds the second-row captain’s chairs and acoustic glass for the first seating row, plus a digital instrument cluster.

3.6-liter V6/dual electric motors, 16 kWh battery
260 total system horsepower
EPA city/highway combined fuel economy (estimated): 30 mpg/82 MPGe
Battery-only range on a full charge: 32 miles

I have a feeling the solution is to identify the 1500W inverter part. Have a dealer install that specific part. Details from Chrysler are skimpy. The following is 150W, which is not what i want.

Inverter Power Outlet - Mopar (68347427AA)



The wattage is not provided in part information. I suspect 150W, not 1500W:

Power Inverter Module - Mopar (56029815AA)

IMG_0963.PNG

IMG_0964.PNG
 
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BikeMike

Active Member

Every manufacturer seems to be focusing on these key electronic components

More On the Jeep Wrangler PHEV

In regards to the technology on the forthcoming 2020 Wrangler, the Power Electronics module for the Wrangler contains two key electrified powertrain components. The first is the

  • Power Inverter Module and the second being the
  • Integrated Dual Charger Module, which consists of the On Board Charger and the DC/DC Converter.
 

BikeMike

Active Member
Car manufacturers are unlikely to provide a generic solution to satisfy eBike needs. A car dealership can probably customize a vehicle to suit eBike needs. You need to be very specific about the parts.

If you want to heat a van with an electric heater powered by the traction battery, you are limited to plugin hybrids. Plugin hybrids have large batteries. The 2021 Sienna has a small battery, so the Sienna is eliminated from consideration.